The raising demand of fish for human consumption has caused a rise in fish cultivation to become a more intense activity and has increased the need for fish feed formulas for aquaculture. Tilapia are aquatic organisms with moderate protein requirements. One of the traditional ingredients used to develop protein diets is fish meal. Despite its high cost, this supply is of high demand for both aquaculture and terrestrial animals. Efforts to seek for alternative sources of conventional and unconventional proteins are ongoing. The purpose of this study is to review alternative sources of proteins with potential to partially or fully substitute fish meal in tilapia feed. Also, it addresses the challenges that aquaculture feeding is facing regarding the substitution of fish meal with proteins from plant sources.
- fish meal