Aquaculture is currently a successful but criticized activity worldwide due to the negative impacts it can produce, particularly when based solely on intensive monoculture systems; therefore, one of the main issues of today’s aquaculture is the commitment to advance toward sustainability. This paper describes the significant advances aquaculture has achieved in chronological order, which applies to commercial and artisanal activities. The main aspects of the advancement are related to integrating two or more species to optimize land, water, and energy use. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and successful examples of polyculture, aquaponics, bioflocs, and flocponics systems are addressed. These types of integrated systems focus on maximizing the efficiency of the use of resources, complying with several criteria that bring them closer to sustainability. However, each one has its challenges, one of the most important being the biological compatibility between the different cultivated organisms. Finally, the evidence suggests that integrated multitrophic systems could be a viable strategy to replace traditional monoculture systems that are polluting and inefficient.
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© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
- Artisanal aquaculture
- Integrated multitrophic aquaculture