Prebiotics and probiotics have shown a number of beneficial impacts preventing diseases in cultured shrimps. Complex soluble carbohydrates are considered ideal for fostering microbiota biodiversity by fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS). Here we evaluated the growth performance and microbiota composition of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after dietary intervention using agavin as a FODMAP prebiotic under farming conditions. Adult L. vannamei were raised at a shrimp farm and the effect of agavin supplemented at 2% (AG2) or 10% (AG10) levels were compared to an agavin-free basal diet (BD). After 28 days-trial, the feed conversion ratio, total feed ingested, and protein efficiency ratio was significantly improved on animals fed with AG2. At the same time, no effect on growth performance was observed in AG10. Surprisingly, after sequencing the V3–V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene a higher microbial richness and diversity in the hepatopancreas and intestine was found only in those animals receiving the AG10 diet, while those receiving the AG2 diet had a decreased richness and diversity, both diets compared to the BD. The beta diversity analysis showed a clear significant microbiota clustering by agavin diets only in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that agavin supplementation had a more substantial deterministic effect on the microbiota of hepatopancreas than on the intestine. We analyzed the literature to search beneficial microbes for shrimp’s health and found sequences for 42 species in our 16S data, being significantly increased Lactobacillus pentosus, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas synxantha in the hepatopancreas of the AG10 and Rodopseudomonas palustris and Streptococcus thermophiles th1435 in the hepatopancreas of the AG2, both compared to BD. Interestingly, when we analyzed the abundance of 42 beneficial microbes as a single microbial community "meta-community," found an increase in their abundance as agavin concentration increases in the hepatopancreas. In addition, we also sequenced the DNA of agavin and found 9 of the 42 beneficial microbes. From those, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were found in shrimps fed with agavin (both AG2 and AG10), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis in AG10 and they were absent the BD diet, suggesting these three species could be introduced with the agavin to the diet. Our work provides evidence that agavin supplementation is associated with an increase of beneficial microbes for the shrimp microbiota at farming conditions. Our study provides the first evidence that a shrimp prebiotic may selectively modify the microbiota in an organ-dependent effect.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Juan Manuel Hurtado Ramírez for informatics technical support as well as Maria Elena Rodriguez-Alegría and Fernando Gonzalez for technical support on agavin extraction and structural characterization. We also thanks to Alfredo Mendoza-Vargas from Unidad de Secuenciación Masiva from INMEGEN and the technical support and infrastructure of the shrimp farm Camarones el Renacimiento S.P.R. de R.I. We also thanks to Dr. Jesús Manuel Díaz Gaxiola, from Instituto Tecnológico de Los Mochis for technical support to conduct the bioassay.
The current study was funded by DGAPA PAPPIT UNAM IN215520 and CONACYT grant Ciencia-Frontera-2019-263986. A.A.L.Z., R.S.M., and A.O.L. acknowledge the support of program Actividades de Intercambio Académico 2018–2019 CIC-UNAM-CIAD and CIC-UNAM-UNISON.
© 2022, The Author(s).