Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Seasonal Sonoran Propolis Extracts and Some of Their Main Constituents

Mayra A. Mendez-Encinas, Dora Valencia*, Jesús Ortega-García, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millan, José C. Díaz-Ríos, Pablo Mendez-Pfeiffer, Cinthia M. Soto-Bracamontes, Adriana Garibay-Escobar, Efrain Alday, Carlos Velazquez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Biological properties of Sonoran propolis (SP) are influenced by harvest time. Caborca propolis showed cellular protective capacity against reactive oxygen species, which might be implicated in anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of SP has not been investigated so far. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of previously characterized seasonal SP extracts (SPE) and some of their main constituents (SPC). The anti-inflammatory activity of SPE and SPC was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production, protein denaturation inhibition, heat-induced hemolysis inhibition, and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis inhibition. SPE from spring, autumn, and winter showed a higher cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells (IC50: 26.6 to 30.2 µg/mL) compared with summer extract (IC50: 49.4 µg/mL). SPE from spring reduced the NO secretion to basal levels at the lowest concentration tested (5 µg/mL). SPE inhibited the protein denaturation by 79% to 100%, and autumn showed the highest inhibitory activity. SPE stabilized erythrocyte membrane against heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Results indicate that the flavonoids chrysin, galangin, and pinocembrin could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of SPE and that the harvest time influences such a property. This study presents evidence of SPE pharmacological potential and some of their constituents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4496
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2023

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  • Sonoran Desert propolis
  • in vitro anti-inflammatory activity
  • nitric oxide
  • seasonality


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