There have been a considerable number of antifungal studies that evaluated natural products (NPs), such as medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites, (phenolic compounds, alkaloids), essential oils, and propolis extracts. These studies have in- vestigated natural antifungal substances for use as food preservatives, medicinal agents, or in agriculture as green pesticides because they represent an option of safe, low-impact, and environmentally friendly antifungal compounds; however, few have studied these NPs as an alternative to disinfection/sanitation for indoor air or environmental surfaces. This review summarizes recent studies on NPs as potential fungal disinfectants in different environments and provides information on the mechanisms of inactivation of these products by fungi. The explored mechanisms show that these NPs can interfere with ATP synthesis and Ca++ and K+ ion flow, mainly damaging the cell membrane and cell wall of fungi, respectively. Another mechanism is the reactive oxygen species effect that dam- ages mitochondria and membranes. Inhibition of the overexpression of the efflux pump is another mechanism that involves damage to fungal proteins. Many NPs appear to have potential as indoor environmental disinfectants.
|Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
|Published - 2023
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- Essential oils
- Mechanisms of action
- Natural products