Application of advanced (S)TEM methods for the study of nanostructured porous functional surfaces: A few working examples

A. J. Santos*, B. Lacroix, F. Maudet, F. Paumier, S. Hurand, C. Dupeyrat, V. J. Gómez, D. L. Huffaker, T. Girardeau, R. García, F. M. Morales

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nanostructured films offer the ability of modifying surface properties, even more, when they can generate layers with controlled porosity. The lower implicit integrity of these (multi)layers when compared to their compact counterparts, hinders the attainment of electron-transparent sections of submicron thicknesses (lamellae), which becomes one of the main reason for the scarcity of studies thorough (scanning-)transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aware of this opportunity, this report provides an overview of the possibilities offered by the application of a variety of (S)TEM techniques for the study of nanostructured and porous photonic surfaces. A few working examples are presented to illustrate the type of information that can be obtained in the case of mesoporous films prepared either by at oblique angles physical processes as well as nitride nanowire arrays prepared by epitaxy methods. It will be demonstrated that this approach enables the realization of several pioneering works, which are essential to complete the characterization of such porosity-controlled coatings. Topics as diverse as the preparation of electron-transparent specimens and the advanced characterization of their structures, morphologies, interfaces and compositions are addressed thanks to the implementation of new breakthroughs in (S)TEM, which allow to obtain high-resolution imaging, spectroscopies, or tomography, at both microscopic and nanoscopic levels. Finally, establishing (S)TEM as a reference tool for the advanced structural, chemical and morphological characterization of porous nanostructured skins, will open new horizons, providing better and new insights and thus allowing the optimization of the fabrication and design of such architectures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111741
JournalMaterials Characterization
Volume185
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to express their gratitude to Ellen Backen, applications scientist from Thermo Fisher Scientific, for the FIB samples prepared at the Scios 2 HiVac system at Nanoport (Eindhoven). A. J. Santos would like to thank the IMEYMAT Institute and the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Cultura for the concessions of grants (ICARO-173873 and FPU16-04386). The “Talent Attraction Program” of the University of Cádiz is acknowledged by supporting B. Lacroix contract code E-11-2017-0117214. University of Cádiz and IMEYMAT are also agreed by financing the mutual facilities available at the UCA R&D Central Services (SC-ICYT), the UCA project reference “PUENTE PR2018-040”, and the IMEYMAT project references “AGREGADOR 2018-1” and “LÍNEAS PRIORITARIAS PLP2019120-3”. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Sêr Cymru National Research Network in Advanced Engineering and Materials. This work was also partly carried out in the framework of the associate laboratory PRIMEO (“Partnership for Research and Innovation in Emerging Materials for phOtonics”) between Safran Electronics & Defense and PPRIME Institute. It benefited from the partial support of the DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, the French Defense Procurement Agency), the “Nouvelle Aquitaine” Region and the European Structural and Investment Funds (ERDF reference P-2016 BAFE-209): IMATOP project.

Funding Information:
The authors would like to express their gratitude to Ellen Backen, applications scientist from Thermo Fisher Scientific, for the FIB samples prepared at the Scios 2 HiVac system at Nanoport (Eindhoven). A. J. Santos would like to thank the IMEYMAT Institute and the Spanish Ministerio de Educaci?n y Cultura for the concessions of grants (ICARO-173873 and FPU16-04386). The ?Talent Attraction Program? of the University of C?diz is acknowledged by supporting B. Lacroix contract code E-11-2017-0117214. University of C?diz and IMEYMAT are also agreed by financing the mutual facilities available at the UCA R&D Central Services (SC-ICYT), the UCA project reference ?PUENTE PR2018-040?, and the IMEYMAT project references ?AGREGADOR 2018-1? and ?L?NEAS PRIORITARIAS PLP2019120-3?. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by S?r Cymru National Research Network in Advanced Engineering and Materials. This work was also partly carried out in the framework of the associate laboratory PRIMEO (?Partnership for Research and Innovation in Emerging Materials for phOtonics?) between Safran Electronics & Defense and PPRIME Institute. It benefited from the partial support of the DGA (Direction G?n?rale de l'Armement, the French Defense Procurement Agency), the ?Nouvelle Aquitaine? Region and the European Structural and Investment Funds (ERDF reference P-2016 BAFE-209): IMATOP project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

Keywords

  • HRTEM
  • iDPC-STEM
  • Porous thin film
  • STEM spectroscopy
  • STEM-HAADF tomography
  • TEM sample preparation

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