Avocado cv. ‘Hass’ paste is the main byproduct derived from industrial avocado processing, and contains various bioactive compounds (BCs). Consumption of these compounds from different sources has been associated with positive health effects, although studies of avocado byproducts remain minimal. Avocado paste was analyzed, regarding its physicochemical properties, proximate composition, main BCs, antioxidant capacity, in vitro digestion and in silico interactions of its three main phenolics with cholesterol. Avocado paste contained 14.2% of lipids and 13.8% of protein. Total phenolic compounds were 2.1 mg GAE/g dw, with a phenolic profile that contained phenolic acids (ferulic, protocatechuic and p-coumaric acids) as its main compounds. Carotenoids (mainly β-carotene), tocopherols (mainly α-tocopherol), fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) and other BCs were also identified and quantified. Release of its phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were highest in the gastric phase of an in vitro digestion. In silico analyses showed that ferulic acid had the strongest interaction with cholesterol, suggesting a possible mechanism to inhibit its intestinal absorption. According to its composition and characteristics, it is possible to suggest avocado paste may be used as an unconventional source of BCs, with possible effects on cholesterol digestion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Instituto de Bebidas de la Industria Mexicana de Coca-Cola through project “Inducción de saciedad y modulación de la digestión intestinal de lípidos ejercidos por los compuestos fenólicos de aguacate Hass” (Premio Nacional en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos 2019); and by Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A. C. (CIAD).
B. S. Zuñiga-Martínez thanks CONACYT for the scholarship that she received to obtain her Master’s Degree. This work was supported by Instituto de Bebidas de la Industria Mexicana de Coca-Cola through project “Inducción de saciedad y modulación de la digestión intestinal de lípidos ejercidos por los compuestos fenólicos de aguacate Hass” (Premio Nacional en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos 2019); and by Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. (CIAD). The authors thank ACARUS (Área de Computo de Alto Rendimiento, Universidad de Sonora) for allowing access to computational resources.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
- Phenolic acids
- Proximate analysis
- Simulated digestion
- Waste valorization