Canine Mammary Cancer: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

Eliza Vazquez, Yulia Lipovka, Alejandro Cervantes-Arias, Adriana Garibay-Escobar, Michelle M. Haby, Felisbina Luisa Queiroga*, Carlos Velazquez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Mammary cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasia in women and non-spayed female dogs and is one of the leading causes of death in both species. Canines develop spontaneous mammary tumors that share a significant number of biological, clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics with human breast cancers. This review provides a detailed description of the histological, molecular and clinical aspects of mammary cancer in canines; it discusses risk factors and currently available diagnostic and treatment options, as well as remaining challenges and unanswered questions. The incidence of mammary tumors is highly variable and is impacted by biological, pathological, cultural and socioeconomic factors, including hormonal status, breed, advanced age, obesity and diet. Diagnosis is mainly based on histopathology, although several efforts have been made to establish a molecular classification of canine mammary tumors to widen the spectrum of treatment options, which today rely heavily on surgical removal of tumors. Lastly, standardization of clinical study protocols, development of canine-specific biological tools, establishment of adequate dog-specific disease biomarkers and identification of targets for the development of new therapies that could improve survival and have less adverse effects than chemotherapy are among the remaining challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3147
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • canine
  • diagnosis
  • mammary cancer
  • molecular classification
  • treatment


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