The ultimate health benefits of peanuts and tree nuts partially depend on the effective gastrointestinal delivery of their phytochemicals. The chemical composition and in vitro bioaccessibility of tocopherols, tocotrienols and phenolic compounds from peanuts and seven tree nuts were evaluated by analytical and chemometric methods. Total fat and dietary fiber (g 100 g-1) ranged from 34.2 (Emory oak acorn) to 72.5 (pink pine nut; PPN) and from 1.2 (PPN) to 22.5 (pistachio). Samples were rich in oleic and linoleic acids (56-87 g 100 g-1 oil). Tocopherols and tocotrienols (mg·kg-1) ranged from 48.1 (peanut) to 156.3 (almond) and 0 (almond, pecan) to 22.1 (PPN) and hydrophilic phenolics from 533 (PPN) to 12,896 (Emory oak acorn); flavonoids and condensed tannins (mg CE.100 g-1) ranged from 142 (white pine nut) to 1833 (Emory oak acorn) and 14 (PPN) to 460 (Emory oak acorn). Three principal components explained 90% of the variance associated with the diversity of antioxidant phytochemicals in samples. In vitro bioaccessibility of tocopherols, tocotrienols, hydrophilic phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins ranged from 11-51%, 16-79%, 25-55%, 0-100%, and 0-94%, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed a potential influence of dietary fiber, fats and/or unsaturated fatty acids on phytochemical bioaccessibility, in a structure-specific manner.
- phenolic compounds
- tree nuts