Cold-Model Study on the Maximum Penetration Distance of the Injection Lance in a Kaldo Furnace

Manuel Pérez-Tello*, María M. Salazar-Campoy, Óscar Rodríguez-Hoyos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A common problem during the operation of the Kaldo furnace is the formation of accretions and blockage of the injection lance due to splashing. This typically occurs during the processing of anodic slimes for the production of doré. In this work, a 1:7 scale model of the Kaldo furnace currently in operation at Metalúrgica de Cobre, Mexico, was built in transparent acrylic plastic. Water and colored oil were used to represent the doré and slag, respectively. The model was used to determine the maximum penetration distance of the injection lance under a variety of experimental conditions at room temperature. Input variables included two types of oil, rotation speed, inclination angle, and the fraction of the vessel volume occupied by the liquids (φ). A mathematical correlation for the dimensionless maximum penetration distance of the injection lance d as a function of φ, the Froude number of the liquids in the vessel (Fr), the Reynolds number of the gas jet (Re), and the oil-to-water kinematic viscosity ratio (η) was developed. Reasonable agreement between the calculated and experimental values was obtained. Digital images showed that splashing was caused by the turbulent gas jet impinging upon the free surface of the liquids, whereas the cascade effect was negligible. The results of this work have been useful to improve the operation of an industrial Kaldo reactor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)943-954
Number of pages12
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2020, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc.


  • Hydrodynamics
  • Kaldo furnace
  • Splashing
  • Top-blown rotary reactor
  • doré


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