Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees from plants and its natural product is available as a safe therapeutic option easily administered orally and readily available as a natural supplement and functional food. In this work, we review the most recent scientific evidence involving propolis from two countries (Brazil and Mexico) located in different hemispheres and with varied biomes. Brazil has a scientifically well documented classification of different types of propolis. Although propolis from Brazil and Mexico present varied compositions, they share compounds with recognized biological activities in different extraction processes. Gram-negative bacteria growth is inhibited with lower concentrations of different types of propolis extracts, regardless of origin. Prominent biological activities against cancer cells and fungi were verified in the different types of extracts evaluated. Antiprotozoal activity needs to be further evaluated for propolis of both origins. Regarding the contamination of propolis (e.g., pesticides, toxic metals), few studies have been carried out. However, there is evidence of chemical contamination in propolis by anthropological action. Studies demonstrate the versatility of using propolis in its different forms (extracts, products, etc.), but several potential applications that might improve the value of Brazilian and Mexican propolis should still be investigated.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
M.A.U.-G. is a Technological Development fellow from CNPq (Proc. 304747/2020-3). NPSB used Mixed-Fund Research project (USO313007158) and A.P.B.-C. was supported with Universidad de Sonora internal project funds (USO513007024).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Antimicrobial activity
- Antiprotozoal activ-ity
- Artepelin C
- Propolis contamination
- Propolis cytotoxicity
- Propolis extract