Connectedness and well-being in simulated nature

Laura Pasca*, Giuseppe Carrus, Ana Loureiro, Óscar Navarro, Angelo Panno, César Tapia Follen, Juan Ignacio Aragonés

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


People relate to nature physically, cognitively and emotionally, and this relationship fosters their well-being. There are several types of environments that vary according to their degree of naturalness, raising the question of whether they each exert different effects on people, connectedness and well-being. In order to study the extent to which environmental connectedness and well-being are a function of viewing different types of nature, we conducted a study with 454 participants from five different countries, who viewed images on a computer screen of one of three types of environment (totally natural, quasi-natural or non-natural) and responded to a series of associated items. The results of a mediation analysis showed an indirect effect of type of environment on well-being through positive and negative affect and connectedness to nature. The corresponding ANOVAs revealed differences in the connectedness and well-being elicited by different types of environment, and in preference: totally natural and quasi-natural environments (with no differences between them) showed differences with non-natural environments. Therefore, our study results suggest the usefulness of images of natural environments in fostering people's well-being and connectedness to nature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-412
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The International Association of Applied Psychology.


  • connectedness to nature
  • naturalness
  • preference
  • well-being


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