© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Palaemonetes argentinus, an abundant freshwater prawn species in the northern and central region of Argentina, has been used as a bioindicator of environmental pollutants as it displays a very high sensitivity to pollutants exposure. Despite their extraordinary ecological relevance, a lack of genomic information has hindered a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in detoxification processes of this species. Thus, transcriptomic profiling studies represent a promising approach to overcome the limitations imposed by the lack of extensive genomic resources for P. argentinus, and may improve the understanding of its physiological and molecular response triggered by pollutants. This work represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of the non-model species P. argentinus to generate functional genomic annotations and provides valuable resources for future genetic studies. Trinity de novo assembly consisted of 24,738 transcripts with high representation of detoxification (phase I and II), anti-oxidation, osmoregulation pathways and DNA replication and bioenergetics. This crustacean transcriptome provides valuable molecular information about detoxification and biochemical processes that could be applied as biomarkers in further ecotoxicology studies.