Dosage and frequency effects of the microalgae Dunaliella sp. on the diet of Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Diana Medina Félix, Ángel Isidro Campa Córdova, José Antonio López Elías, Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova, Gudelia Figueroa Preciado, Edilmar Cortés Jacinto, Antonio Luna González, Fernando Mendoza Cano, Nolberta Huerta Aldaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Carotenoid sources in shrimp diets have shown to be effective for improving survival, growth, reproductive capacity, stress resistance, and also for diminishing disease. Dunaliella sp. is known to have high levels of β-carotenes, which works as pro-vitamin A, enhancing the immune response in shrimp. However, the administration of Dunaliella sp. in shrimp diet needs to be evaluated to determine the appropriate dose and frequency of administration needed to optimize performance in cultured white shrimp. Diets with three different concentrations of Dunaliella sp. flour (1.5, 2 and 3%) were tested, and each one was administered at three different time frequencies: daily, and at 3- and 7-days intervals. Shrimp fed for 20 days were then infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL). Hemolymph parameters including protein, glucose, lactate, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed to evaluate shrimp stress status. Additionally, L. vannamei innate non-specific immune response was examined by evaluating the activity of prophenoloxidase (proPO), phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hemolymph; shrimp survival was also recorded. Survival after infection with V. parahaemolyticus was higher for shrimp fed with diets consisting of 2% Dunaliella sp. administered every 3 and 7 days. Shrimp fed a diet consisting of 2% or 3% Dunaliella sp. administered every third day showed positive physiological and immune responses to infection. A decrease in lipid oxidation in plasma triglycerides was observed at 48 h post inoculation in shrimp fed at all diets regimes due to Dunaliella sp. antioxidant action. Experimental results suggest the importance of Dunaliella sp. dosage and feeding frequency in L. vannamei diet to improve the survival and immune response.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)14-22
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Invertebrate Pathology
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2019


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