Effect of salinity on the synthesis and concentration of glycine betaine in osmoregulatory tissues from juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei

María F. Delgado-Gaytán, Silvia Gómez-Jiménez, Luis A. Gámez-Alejo, Jesús A. Rosas-Rodríguez, Ciria G. Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M. Valenzuela-Soto

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9 Scopus citations

Abstract

In marine animals, glycine betaine is one of the main osmolytes accumulated under osmotic stress conditions; nevertheless, in penaeids, shrimps little is known about the pathways involved in glycine betaine biosynthesis. In animal cells, glycine betaine is synthesized by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). We herein investigated the salinity effect on the synthesis and concentration of glycine betaine on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were subjected to 10, 20, 35, 40, 50, and 60 ppt salinity conditions for seven days. BADH activity increased in hepatopancreas and gills of shrimps subjected to salinities above 35 ppt salinity. In muscle, the BADH activity decreased at 35 ppt salinity. In hepatopancreas from shrimps subjected to 50 and 60 ppt salinities, BADH activity increased 1.1 and 1.7-fold. At 60 ppt salinity, BADH activity increased 1.5-fold respect to 35 ppt in gills. Glycine betaine concentration increased in hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, and hemolymph in shrimps subjected to salinities above 35 ppt. Glycine betaine concentration also increased at 20 ppt salinity, while at 10 ppt, not detected significant differences. The catch of glycine betaine from hemolymph by the cell likely is carried out to avoid protein denaturalization. Ammonia concentration in the aquarium's water only increased at salinities of 20 ppt and 10 ppt (1.1-fold relative to 35 ppt). Our data demonstrated that in L. vannamei, salinity regulates BADH activity and glycine betaine content in a tissue-specific manner.

Keywords

  • Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase
  • Glycine betaine
  • Litopenaeus vannamei
  • Salinity

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