The enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the synthesis of glycine betaine (GB), an osmolyte and osmoprotectant. Also, it participates in several metabolic pathways in humans. All BADHs known have cysteine in the active site involved in the aldehyde binding, whereas the porcine kidney enzyme (pkBADH) also has a neighborhood cysteine, both sensitive to oxidation. The antineoplastic and immuno-suppressant pre-drug cyclophosphamide (CTX), and its bioactivation products, have two highly oxidating chlorine atoms. This work aimed to analyze the effect of CTX in the activity of porcine kidney betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. PkBADH was incubated with varying CTX concentration (0 to 2.0 mM) at 25 °C and lost 50 % of its activity with 2.0 mM CTX. The presence of the coenzyme NAD+ (0.5 mM) decreased 95% the activity in 2.0 mM CTX. The substrate betaine aldehyde (0.05 and 0.4 mM, and the products NADH (0.1–0.5 mM) and GB (1 and 10 mM) did not have an effect on the enzyme inactivation by CTX. The reducing agents, dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol, reverted the pkBADH inactivation, but reduced glutathione (GSH) was unable to restore the enzyme activity. Molecular docking showed that CTX could enter at the enzyme active site, where its chlorine atoms may interact with the catalytic and the neighboring cysteines. The results obtained show that CTX inactivates the pkBADH due to oxidation of the catalytic cysteine or because it oxidizes catalytic and neighborhood cysteine, forming a disulfide bridge with a concomitant decrease in the activity of the enzyme.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
R. Cruz-Valencia gratefully acknowledges a scholarship from CONACyT for graduate studies.
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- Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase
- Glycine betaine
- Sulfhydryl oxidation