Ex Vivo Experiments Shed Light on the Innate Immune Response from Influenza Virus

Daniel Olmos Liceaga, Sandro Filipe Nunes, Roberto A. Saenz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The innate immune response is recognized as a key driver in controlling an influenza virus infection in a host. However, the mechanistic action of such innate response is not fully understood. Infection experiments on ex vivo explants from swine trachea represent an efficient alternative to animal experiments, as the explants conserved key characteristics of an organ from an animal. In the present work we compare three cellular automata models of influenza virus dynamics. The models are fitted to free virus and infected cells data from ex vivo swine trachea experiments. Our findings suggest that the presence of an immune response is necessary to explain the observed dynamics in ex vivo organ culture. Moreover, such immune response should include a refractory state for epithelial cells, and not just a reduced infection rate. Our results may shed light on how the immune system responds to an infection event.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115
JournalBulletin of Mathematical Biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Society for Mathematical Biology.


  • Cellular automata
  • Ex vivo experiment
  • Influenza virus
  • Interferon dynamics


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