Recently, soluble forms of aluminum for human use or consumption have been determined to be potentially toxic due to their association with hepatic, neurological, hematological, neoplastic, and bone conditions. This study aims to assess the genotoxic effect of aluminum chloride on genomic instability associated with the onset of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced breast cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. The dietary behavior of the rats was assessed, and the concentration of aluminum in the mammary glands was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Genomic instability was determined in the histological sections of mammary glands stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Moreover, micronucleus in peripheral blood and comet assays were performed. The results of dietary behavior evaluation indicated no significant differences between the experimental treatments. However, aluminum concentration in breast tissues was high in the +2000Al/-NMU treatment. This experimental treatment caused moderate intraductal cell proliferation, lymph node hyperplasia, and serous gland adenoma. Furthermore, micronucleus and comet test results revealed that +2000Al/-NMU led to a genotoxic effect after a 10-day exposure and the damage was more evident after a 15-day exposure. Therefore, in conclusion, genomic instability is present and the experimental conditions assessed are not associated with breast cancer.