Genotoxic effects of aluminum chloride and their relationship with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced breast cancer in sprague dawley rats

Alejandro Monserrat García-Alegría*, Agustín Gómez-Álvarez, Iván Anduro-Corona, Armando Burgos-Hernández, Eduardo Ruíz-Bustos, Rafael Canett-Romero, Humberto González-Ríos, José Guillermo López-Cervantes, Karen Lillian Rodríguez-Martínez, Humberto Astiazaran-Garcia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Recently, soluble forms of aluminum for human use or consumption have been determined to be potentially toxic due to their association with hepatic, neurological, hematological, neoplastic, and bone conditions. This study aims to assess the genotoxic effect of aluminum chloride on genomic instability associated with the onset of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced breast cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. The dietary behavior of the rats was assessed, and the concentration of aluminum in the mammary glands was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Genomic instability was determined in the histological sections of mammary glands stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Moreover, micronucleus in peripheral blood and comet assays were performed. The results of dietary behavior evaluation indicated no significant differences between the experimental treatments. However, aluminum concentration in breast tissues was high in the +2000Al/NMU treatment. This experimental treatment caused moderate intraductal cell proliferation, lymph node hyperplasia, and serous gland adenoma. Furthermore, micronucleus and comet test results revealed that +2000Al/NMU led to a genotoxic effect after a 10-day exposure and the damage was more evident after a 15-day exposure. Therefore, in conclusion, genomic instability is present and the experimental conditions assessed are not associated with breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Universidad de Sonora.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Aluminum chloride
  • Genotoxicity
  • Rats


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