Luis Gustavo Gil-Mendoza, Jorge Enrique Ramírez-Albores, Alexel Jesús Burgara-Estrella, Jaqueline García-Hernández*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Intensive agriculture has had a negative impact on biodiversity and human health across the world. Specifically, bird populations have declined for many years due to soil degradation and agrochemical pollution. This review, which draws on 890 sources, including research articles and literature reviews, examines the interaction between birds and intensive agriculture to better understand its effects and conservation implications. Intensive agricultural activities have resulted in significant population declines among insectivorous and carnivorous birds, while generalist bird populations have increased. The heavy use of pesticides in intensive agriculture affects food availability for birds by reducing invertebrate and vertebrate populations as well as natural vegetation cover, which has a significant impact on bird diversity. Additionally, the accumulation of toxic compounds reduces bird reproductive success. In general, intensive agroecosystems have consistently had lower avian diversity than forest habitats and even lower-impact agricultural systems. However, some agroecosystems, such as rice fields, agricultural drainages, and canal systems, create alternative habitats that can benefit waterfowl. Future work should consider strategies such as restoring and enhancing vegetation edges, preserving natural vegetation, implementing organic farming practices, maintaining water bodies, and providing economic incentives for landowners to conserve biodiversity on their land to promote bird diversity conservation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-132
Number of pages15
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© (2024), (Colegio de Postgraduados). All Rights Reserved.


  • agricultural intensification
  • avifauna
  • biodiversity
  • land use change
  • pesticides


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