Increment Antimicrobial Resistance during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the Invifar Network

Luis Esaú López-Jácome, Diana Fernández-Rodríguez, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, María Del Rayo Morfin-Otero, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Alfredo Ponce-De-León, Edgar Ortiz-Brizuela, Fabian Rojas-Larios, María Del Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Juan Pablo Mena-Ramírez, Patricia Rodríguez-Zulueta, Enrique Bolado-Martínez, Luis Javier Quintanilla-Cazares, Laura Karina Avilés-Benítez, Scarlett Consuelo-Munoz, Elena Victoria Choy-Chang, José Manuel Feliciano-Guzmán, Carlos Antonio Couoh-May, Eduardo López-GutiérrezAarón Molina-Jaimes, Joaquín Rincón-Zuno, Mariana Gil-Veloz, Margarita Alcaraz-Espejel, Reyna Edith Corte-Rojas, Josué Gómez-Espinosa, Víctor Antonio Monroy-Colin, Cecilia Teresita Morales-De-La-Peña, Efrén Aguirre-Burciaga, Laura Isabel López-Moreno, Rebeca Thelma Martínez-Villarreal, Carlos Miguel Cetina-Umaña, Mario Galindo-Méndez, Gabriel Israel Soto-Nieto, Dulce Isabel Cobos-Canul, Martha Irene Moreno-Méndez, Esmeralda Tello-Gómez, Daniel Romero-Romero, Sandra Quintana-Ponce, Raúl Peralta-Catalán, Alejandro Valadez-Quiroz, Alejandro Molina-Chavarría, Cecilia Padilla-Ibarra, Irma Elena Barroso-Herrera-Y-Cairo, Lizbeth Soraya Duarte-Miranda, Dulce María López-López, Samuel Pavel Escalante-Armenta, Mónica Jazmín Osorio-Guzmán, Maribel López-García, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Elvira Garza-González*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-Tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-345
Number of pages8
JournalMicrobial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.)
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2022, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2022.

Keywords

  • Acinetobacter baumannii complex
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Enterobacter cloacae
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Escherichia coli
  • INVIFAR
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Staphylococcus aureus

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