Cephalopods, in particular octopus (Octopus vulgaris), have the ability to alter their appearance or body pattern by showing a wide range of camouflage by virtue of their chromatophores, which contain nanostructured granules of ommochrome pigments. Recently, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ommochromes have become of great interest; therefore, in this study, the pH-dependent redox effect of the extraction solvent on the antioxidant potential and the structural characterization of the pigments were evaluated. Cell viability was determined by the microdilution method in broth by turbidity, MTT, resazurin, as well as fluorescence microscopy kit assays. A Live/ Dead Double Staining Kit and an ROS Kit were used to elucidate the possible inhibitory mechanisms of ommochromes against bacterial and fungal strains. The results obtained revealed that the redox state alters the color changes of the ommochromes and is dependent on the pH in the extraction solvent. Natural phenoxazinone (ommochromes) is moderately toxic to the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Candida albicans, while the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, Alternaria spp. and Fusarium verticillioides, were tolerant to these pigments. UV/visible spectral scanning and Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggest the presence of reduced ommatin in methanol/ HCl extract with high intrinsic fluorescence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)989-1002
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of microbiology and biotechnology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 28 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee KMB. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.


  • Octopus vulgaris
  • Ommochromes
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antioxidant
  • fluorescence
  • xanthommatin


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