Cadmium colloidal crystalline nanoparticles were obtained by a simple green synthesis method employing the plant extract of Opuntia ficus-indica. The plant extract reduces the Cd ions and stabilizes the size of cadmium colloidal particles at the nanometric level. The size and morphology of agglomerates of nanoparticles of about 100 nm were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The size, shape and crystalline structure of the Cd nanoparticles were determined from TEM analysis. The results show that Cd nanoparticles with hexagonal crystalline structure and average size 2-3 nm were obtained by this green synthesis method. The optical absorption spectrum of the colloidal solution containing the cadmium nanoparticles displays an optical absorption band centered at 236 nm, which was attributed to the plasmon resonance of the Cd colloidal nanoparticles. Mie theory for colloidal systems was applied to reproduce theoretically the plasmon resonance absorption data of the Cd colloidal nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Raman spectrum of powder from dried samples after reduction of cadmium ions, displays a low wavenumber vibration mode centered at 114 cm-1, assigned to the Cd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at local spin density approximation (LSDA) level were performed to determine the structure and vibrational properties of small clusters of cadmium consisting of 3-10 atoms. Radial breathing modes with frequencies between 90 cm-1 and 120 cm-1 were found to be the most active Raman modes of the low-energy Cdn clusters.
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© 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.
- DFT calculations
- cadmium nanoparticles
- radial breathing modes
- surface plasmon resonance