Native shrubland and managed buffelgrass savanna in drylands: Implications for ecosystem carbon and water fluxes

César Hinojo-Hinojo, Alejandro E. Castellanos, Travis Huxman, Julio C. Rodriguez, Rodrigo Vargas, José R. Romo-León, Joel A. Biederman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Land cover and land-use change (LCLUC) between woody- and grass-dominated ecosystems in drylands comprise one of the largest uncertainties in the land CO 2 sink. This is especially true for the widespread transition from shrublands to grasslands/savannas caused by the establishment of exotic C 4 grass species for grazing or through biological invasion of these species, where information about its impacts on ecosystem CO 2 fluxes is limited. For studying this, we used three years of eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and evapotranspiration (ET) over a Sonoran Desert shrubland and an adjacent grazing savanna of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), established 35 years ago. At monthly, seasonal and annual time scales, we assessed whether between-site differences in CO 2 fluxes were related to differences in ecosystem water use, measured as the fraction ET to precipitation, water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio between GPP and ET) and/or to the relation between R eco and GPP. Although the savanna had higher WUE than the shrubland, its summer NEP was limited by water use, due to limitations in leaf area index and likely rooting patterns. Conversely, the savanna had higher NEP than the shrubland during fall to spring due to increased WUE; possibly due to activity of buffelgrass and remaining woody species using (summer) water from deeper soil layers. However, differences across these seasons compensated each other at the inter-annual scale, and both sites had comparable net carbon sinks over the three-year study period. Further studies are needed to understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with carbon and water fluxes associated with LCLUC in dryland ecosystems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-278
Number of pages10
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Volume268
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

shrubland
net ecosystem production
arid lands
shrublands
savanna
water use efficiency
savannas
evapotranspiration
primary productivity
ecosystems
carbon
ecosystem
primary production
land cover
land use change
uncertainty
water
water use
grazing
grasses

Keywords

  • Buffelgrass
  • Carbon and water fluxes
  • Cenchrus ciliaris
  • Eddy covariance
  • Grass encroachment
  • Land cover change
  • Sonoran Desert

Cite this

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title = "Native shrubland and managed buffelgrass savanna in drylands: Implications for ecosystem carbon and water fluxes",
abstract = "Land cover and land-use change (LCLUC) between woody- and grass-dominated ecosystems in drylands comprise one of the largest uncertainties in the land CO 2 sink. This is especially true for the widespread transition from shrublands to grasslands/savannas caused by the establishment of exotic C 4 grass species for grazing or through biological invasion of these species, where information about its impacts on ecosystem CO 2 fluxes is limited. For studying this, we used three years of eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and evapotranspiration (ET) over a Sonoran Desert shrubland and an adjacent grazing savanna of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), established 35 years ago. At monthly, seasonal and annual time scales, we assessed whether between-site differences in CO 2 fluxes were related to differences in ecosystem water use, measured as the fraction ET to precipitation, water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio between GPP and ET) and/or to the relation between R eco and GPP. Although the savanna had higher WUE than the shrubland, its summer NEP was limited by water use, due to limitations in leaf area index and likely rooting patterns. Conversely, the savanna had higher NEP than the shrubland during fall to spring due to increased WUE; possibly due to activity of buffelgrass and remaining woody species using (summer) water from deeper soil layers. However, differences across these seasons compensated each other at the inter-annual scale, and both sites had comparable net carbon sinks over the three-year study period. Further studies are needed to understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with carbon and water fluxes associated with LCLUC in dryland ecosystems.",
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Native shrubland and managed buffelgrass savanna in drylands : Implications for ecosystem carbon and water fluxes. / Hinojo-Hinojo, César; Castellanos, Alejandro E.; Huxman, Travis; Rodriguez, Julio C.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Romo-León, José R.; Biederman, Joel A.

In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 268, 15.04.2019, p. 269-278.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Native shrubland and managed buffelgrass savanna in drylands

T2 - Implications for ecosystem carbon and water fluxes

AU - Hinojo-Hinojo, César

AU - Castellanos, Alejandro E.

AU - Huxman, Travis

AU - Rodriguez, Julio C.

AU - Vargas, Rodrigo

AU - Romo-León, José R.

AU - Biederman, Joel A.

PY - 2019/4/15

Y1 - 2019/4/15

N2 - Land cover and land-use change (LCLUC) between woody- and grass-dominated ecosystems in drylands comprise one of the largest uncertainties in the land CO 2 sink. This is especially true for the widespread transition from shrublands to grasslands/savannas caused by the establishment of exotic C 4 grass species for grazing or through biological invasion of these species, where information about its impacts on ecosystem CO 2 fluxes is limited. For studying this, we used three years of eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and evapotranspiration (ET) over a Sonoran Desert shrubland and an adjacent grazing savanna of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), established 35 years ago. At monthly, seasonal and annual time scales, we assessed whether between-site differences in CO 2 fluxes were related to differences in ecosystem water use, measured as the fraction ET to precipitation, water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio between GPP and ET) and/or to the relation between R eco and GPP. Although the savanna had higher WUE than the shrubland, its summer NEP was limited by water use, due to limitations in leaf area index and likely rooting patterns. Conversely, the savanna had higher NEP than the shrubland during fall to spring due to increased WUE; possibly due to activity of buffelgrass and remaining woody species using (summer) water from deeper soil layers. However, differences across these seasons compensated each other at the inter-annual scale, and both sites had comparable net carbon sinks over the three-year study period. Further studies are needed to understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with carbon and water fluxes associated with LCLUC in dryland ecosystems.

AB - Land cover and land-use change (LCLUC) between woody- and grass-dominated ecosystems in drylands comprise one of the largest uncertainties in the land CO 2 sink. This is especially true for the widespread transition from shrublands to grasslands/savannas caused by the establishment of exotic C 4 grass species for grazing or through biological invasion of these species, where information about its impacts on ecosystem CO 2 fluxes is limited. For studying this, we used three years of eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and evapotranspiration (ET) over a Sonoran Desert shrubland and an adjacent grazing savanna of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), established 35 years ago. At monthly, seasonal and annual time scales, we assessed whether between-site differences in CO 2 fluxes were related to differences in ecosystem water use, measured as the fraction ET to precipitation, water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio between GPP and ET) and/or to the relation between R eco and GPP. Although the savanna had higher WUE than the shrubland, its summer NEP was limited by water use, due to limitations in leaf area index and likely rooting patterns. Conversely, the savanna had higher NEP than the shrubland during fall to spring due to increased WUE; possibly due to activity of buffelgrass and remaining woody species using (summer) water from deeper soil layers. However, differences across these seasons compensated each other at the inter-annual scale, and both sites had comparable net carbon sinks over the three-year study period. Further studies are needed to understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with carbon and water fluxes associated with LCLUC in dryland ecosystems.

KW - Buffelgrass

KW - Carbon and water fluxes

KW - Cenchrus ciliaris

KW - Eddy covariance

KW - Grass encroachment

KW - Land cover change

KW - Sonoran Desert

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M3 - Artículo

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