In Cauchy problems with blow-up solutions there exists a singular point whose position is unknown a priori (for this reason, the application of standard fixed-step numerical methods for solving such problems can lead to significant errors). In this paper, we describe a method for numerical integration of blow-up problems for non-linear systems of coupled ordinary differential equations of the first order (x m ) t ′ =f m (t,x 1 ,…,x n ), m=1,…,n, based on the introduction a new non-local independent variable ξ which is related to the original variables t and x 1 ,…,x n by the equation ξ t ′ =g(t,x 1 ,…,x n ,ξ). With a suitable choice of the regularizing function g, the proposed method leads to equivalent problems whose solutions are represented in parametric form and do not have blowing-up singular points; therefore, the transformed problems admit the use of standard numerical methods with a fixed stepsize in ξ. Several test problems are formulated for systems of ordinary differential equations that have monotonic and non-monotonic blow-up solutions, which are expressed in elementary functions. Comparison of exact and numerical solutions of test problems showed the high efficiency of numerical methods based on non-local transformations of a special kind. The qualitative features of numerical integration of blow-up problems for single ODEs of higher orders with the use of non-local transformations are described. The efficiency of various regularizing functions is compared. It is shown that non-local transformations in combination with the method of lines can be successfully used to integrate initial–boundary value problems, described by non-linear parabolic and hyperbolic PDEs, that have blow-up solutions. We consider test problems (admitting exact solutions) for nonlinear partial differential equations such as equations of the heat-conduction type and Klein–Gordon type equations, in which the blowing-up occurs both in an isolated point of space x=x ∗ , and on the entire range of variation of the space variable 0≤x≤1. The results of numerical integration of test problems, obtained when approximating PDEs by systems with a different number of coupled ODEs, are compared with exact solutions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work was supported by the Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, Russia (State Registration Number AAAA-A17-117021310385-6 ).
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- Blow-up problems
- Non-linear partial differential equations
- Non-local transformations
- Numerical and exact solutions
- Systems of ordinary differential equations