Self-regulated learning is an important variable in academic success. Protective factors may help adolescents exhibit self-regulated learning in high school. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a structural equation model, the role played by perceived social and academic support, resilient disposition, and academic goals in self-regulated learning in adolescents. After providing informed consent, 227 high school students answered a Likert-scale questionnaire. The results revealed a model in which perceived social and academic support was associated with self-regulated learning and a resilient disposition. On the other hand, having a resilient disposition affected academic goals, and lastly, academic goals affected self-regulated learning. The positive effect of protective factors on self-regulated learning is discussed, as are the implications for educational programs.