Perspectives of Quantitative Risk Assessment Studies for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Water Samples

Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona, Pablo Gortáres-Moroyoqui*, Luis H. Álvarez, Ruth Gabriela Ulloa-Mercado, Luis Alonso Leyva-Soto, Lourdes Mariana Díaz-Tenorio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A quantitative microbial risk assessment
method can be used to evaluate infections probabilities
for microorganisms in a specific place. The methodology
provides suitable information to generate strategies
focusing on health problems. Giardia cysts (GC) and
Cryptosporidium oocysts (CO) are considered emerging
pathogens that can infect human and animals by
ingesting contaminated food or water, where food and
water are transport vehicles for these parasites. Studies
for GC and CO have reported occurrences for these
parasites in water up to 100%, and some of these studies
documented a number of cases, about 403,000 people,
infected worldwide. This review is focused on compiling
the most relevant works assessing the risk for GC
and CO and their presence in different water samples
that are susceptible for direct and indirect human consumption.
The annual risk infection probability for these
parasites has been reported from different water sources,
with a range between 1 × 10−6 and 1, while the world
standard regulation is 1 × 10−4. The infection probability
depends not only on water quality but also on water
treatment implementations.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberDOI 10.1007/s11270-017-3333-5
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number5
StatePublished - 17 Apr 2017


  • Cryptosporidium
  • Drinking water
  • Giardia
  • Groundwater
  • Risk probability
  • Surface water


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