Prevalence of wheat/gluten-related disorders and gluten-free diet in paraguay: An online survey-based study

Noé Ontiveros, Raúl Emilio Real-Delor, José Antonio Mora-Melgem, Carlos Eduardo Beltrán-Cárdenas, Oscar Gerardo Figueroa-Salcido, Marcela de Jesús Vergara-Jiménez, Feliznando Isidro Cárdenas-Torres, Lilian Karem Flores-Mendoza, Jesús Gilberto Arámburo-Gálvez*, Francisco Cabrera-Chávez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are increasing around the world, but their magnitude and relevance remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Thus, an online survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of GRDs as well as adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in Paraguayan adult population. There were 1058 individuals surveyed using a validated questionnaire (response rate of 93.9%). The self-reported prevalence rates were as follows (95% CI): gluten sensitivity (GS), 10.30% (8.53–12.29); non-celiac GS (NCGS), 5.19% (3.94–6.71); physician-diagnosed ce-liac disease (PD-CD), 3.11% (2.15–4.35); wheat allergy (WA), 2.07% (1.30–3.13); and adherence to GFD, 15.69% (13.55–18.02). Excluding CD, more women than men met the criteria for GRDs, adverse food reactions, and GFD (p < 0.05). Eight respondents reported the coexistence of NCGS with PD-CD and/or WA. Most cases on a GFD indicated medical/dietitian advice for following the diet (68.07%). Non-self-reported GS individuals indicated weight control (46.4%) and the notion that the GFD is healthier (20.2%) as the main motivations for following the diet. GRDs are not uncommon in Paraguayan adult population. It seems that there is awareness about GRDs and the GFD, but training about the diagnosis of GRDs is desirable because of the informed overlapping diagnoses of CD or WA with NCGS. Future studies involving face-to-face interviews are necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number396
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Celiac disease
  • Glu-ten-free diet
  • Gluten-related disorders
  • Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
  • Wheat allergy


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