Primary Dengue Infection in Patients Requiring Hospitalization during an Outbreak in a Low Incidence Mexican Region

María Elena Cárdenas-Perea, Lilian Karem Flores-Mendoza, Irma Pérez-Contreras, María Alicia Díaz-Orea, Eduardo Gómez-Conde, Paulina Cortés-Hernández, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Gerardo Santos-López, Francisca Sosa-Jurado*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Dengue manifestations can range from subclinical to fatal. The study of factors that influence dengue's clinical severity can provide information to potentially limit or predict severe cases. Secondary infection (SI) with a different dengue serotype has been recognized as an important determinant of severity. However, severe dengue (SD) manifestations, including shock, can happen during primary infection (PI) too and the mechanisms involved are less understood. To characterize the severe manifestations associated to PI, we distinguished between primary and secondary dengue cases in hospitalized patients from a region of low and recent dengue incidence in central Mexico. This region can serve as a model for dengue's behavior as it spreads to new areas worldwide. Methods: Dengue-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG concentrations were measured in the serum of 78 hospitalized patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever, and their ratios were used to discriminate between PI and SI, as recommended by World Health Organization. Clinical and laboratory manifestations were compared between PI and SI. Results and Conclusions: PI was detected in 23% of hospitalized dengue cases, a proportion similar to that reported in high-incidence regions in Mexico. PI was more frequent in 16- to 40-year-olds, and was absent in patients older than 60 years. Only dengue with warning signs and SD were present in the studied population of hospitalized patients, and case frequency decreased with clinical severity both in PI and SI groups. No significant differences in demographics, laboratory tests, or symptoms were found between PI and SI, which illustrates that cases requiring hospitalization during outbreaks can be severe, even if they are PI. This information can help plan for sanitary contingencies in places where dengue is recently emergent and numerous PI cases are expected. The mechanisms involved in PI clinical severity need to be studied further.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-386
Number of pages7
JournalVector Borne Zoonotic
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2020, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2020.

Keywords

  • dengue IgG and IgM
  • dengue outbreak
  • dengue primary infection

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