Relative permittivity estimation of patch antennas on FR4 substrates for S and C frequency bands

Rafael Sabory-García, B. Arteche-Alday, C. Ortega-Blanco, R. Gomez-Fuentes, J. R. Noriega, A. García-Juárez, L. A. García Delgado, R. Pérez-Alcocer, M. C. Acosta-Enríquez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article proposes an empirical methodology for accurately estimating the relative permittivity (Formula presented.) of FR4 boards, which is essential for designing microstrip antennas at S and C frequency bands. As the relative permittivity of dielectric materials changes with frequency, the proposed method involves selecting a known starting value of (Formula presented.) for an FR4 board and then simulating the reflection coefficient S11 parameters of an antenna design. These simulated parameters are then compared to the measured S11 parameters of a fabricated antenna. A value of (Formula presented.) = 4.55 is accurately determined when the two S11 parameters converge close to the desired design frequency. With the FR4 (Formula presented.) value obtained from this methodology, a slot patch antenna is designed for a frequency of 4 GHz, obtaining a reflection coefficient of |Γ| = 0.035, a bandwidth BW = 117 MHz, and a standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.0746. The proposed methodology can be used as a tool to estimate the (Formula presented.) of various substrates that are not characterized at high frequencies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Modelling and Simulation
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • C-band
  • FR4
  • patch antenna
  • Relative permittivity
  • S-band
  • S simulation


Dive into the research topics of 'Relative permittivity estimation of patch antennas on FR4 substrates for S and C frequency bands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this