Scientific publishing in mathematics and physics (as in other exact sciences) is rapidly changing, and it is important to identify and predict relevant changes and their potential consequences. To understand such changes, the authors begin with a brief history of scientific publishing and the rise of digital publishing. The study presents a qualitative comparison of the basic features of traditional and digital forms of publications (books, journals, libraries and databases, archives, webinars, forums, digital learning materials), on the basis of which relevant changes (specific for mathematics and physics) are identified and predicted. Several tables describing themost popular and useful scientific online tools for scientists, professors, students, and engineers are listed. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012.