Role of potassium levels in pkBADH heterogeneity of NAD+ binding site

César Muñoz-Bacasehua, Jesus A Rosas-Rodríguez, Aldo A Arvizu-Flores, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Studies in porcine kidney BADH (pkBADH) suggested that the enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of active sites and undergoes potassium-induced conformational changes. This study aimed to analyze if potassium concentration plays a role in the heterogeneity of pkBADH active sites through changes in NAD+ affinity constants, in its secondary structure content and stability. The enzyme was titrated with NAD+ 1 mM at fixed-variable KCl concentration, and the interaction measured by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and Circular Dichroism (CD). ITC data showed that K+ increased the first active site affinity in a manner dependent on its concentration; KD values to the first site were 14.4, 13.1, and 10.4 μM, at 25, 50, and 75 mM KCl. ΔG values showed that the coenzyme binding is a spontaneous reaction without changes between active sites or depending on KCl concentration. ΔH and TΔSb values showed that NAD+ binding to the active site is an endothermic process and is carried out at the expense of changes in entropy. α-Helix content increased as KCl increased, enzyme (Tm)app values were 2.6 °C and 3.3 °C higher at 20 mM and 200 mM K+. PkBADH molecular model showed three different interaction K+ sites. Results suggested K+ can interact with pkBADH and cause changes in the secondary structure, it provokes changes in the enzyme affinity by the coenzyme, and in the thermostability.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
StateE-pub ahead of print - 3 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Role of potassium levels in pkBADH heterogeneity of NAD+ binding site'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this