Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Yoremes (Mayos) in Mexico: A cross-sectional study

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel*, Antonio Rascón-Careaga, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, María Alba Guadalupe Corella-Madueño, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, María Lourdes Aldana-Madrid, Gerardo Javier Almada-Balderrama, Alan Daniel Nuñez-Aguirre, Oliver Liesenfeld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Yoremes and to identify associations of T. gondii exposure with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of Yoremes. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Yoremes were enrolled in the locality of Tierra Blanca in the municipality of Navojoa in Sonora State, Mexico. Participants: We studied 200 Yoremes (Mayos); they are an indigenous ethnic group living in a coastal region in northwestern Mexico. Primary and secondary outcome measures: We assessed the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We used a standardised questionnaire to obtain the characteristics of Yoremes. The association of T. gondii exposure and Yoremes' characteristics was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of the 200 Yoremes studied (mean age: 31.50±18.43 years), 26 (13.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 19 (73.1%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with sex, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. In contrast, multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with increasing age (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04; p=0.03) and consumption of squirrel meat (OR=4.99; 95% CI 1.07 to 23.31; p=0.04). Furthermore, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Yoremes with a history of lymphadenopathy (p=0.03) and those suffering from frequent abdominal pain (p=0.03). In women, T. gondii exposure was associated with a history of caesarean sections (p=0.03) and miscarriages (p=0.02). Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the first time, serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Yoremes in Mexico. Results suggest that infection with T. gondii might be affecting the health of Yoremes. Results may be useful for an optimal design of preventive measures against T. gondii infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere010218
JournalBMJ Open
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016

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