Sewage Irrigation Fields—From Relict Landscape to Blue-Green Urban Infrastructure

Alicja Krzemińska, Anna Zaręba, Mariusz Adynkiewicz-Piragas*, Magdalena Modelska, Francisco Javier Grijalva, Rogelio Monreal, Dan van der Horst

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, we examined the fate and future of sewage irrigation fields; historic urban wetlands that served as sewer drainage before modern sewage treatment plants were built. Our aim in this study was to reappraise sewage irrigation fields in the urban fabric of modern cities and to analyse the possibility of re-integrating them into the ecosystem services system, as well as into green and blue infrastructure, providing leisure and recreational opportunities, stabilising the city’s biodiversity and microclimate, and increasing water retention in these areas. The research was based on the identification of the location of sewage irrigation fields in green and blue infrastructure systems, determination of the scale and extent of their connections to the urban fabric and an analysis of their multi-functionality including: ecological, climatic, hydrological, landscape, spatial, environmental, cultural and social, educational, and tourist and recreational functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2505
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • green and blue infrastructure
  • relict landscapes
  • urban ecosystem services
  • wetland restoration


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