Strong Philopatry, Isolation by Distance, and Local Habitat Have Promoted Genetic Structure in Heermann’s Gull

Misael Daniel Mancilla-Morales, Enriqueta Velarde, Andres Aguilar, Araceli Contreras-Rodríguez, Exequiel Ezcurra, Jesús A. Rosas-Rodríguez, José G. Soñanez-Organis*, Enrico A. Ruiz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Philopatry can promote genetic differentiation among populations but remains un-described in many seabirds. Hence, we explored such associations in Heermann’s Gull. Philopatry was observed monitoring 998 gulls in Rasa Island, while genetic differences were examined in the Cardonosa, Rasa, and Isabel islands using the cytochrome b of 296 gulls. Adults returned repeatedly to its natal valley or to a very close distance from it under different modelled hypotheses. Likewise, the interaction between sex and distance indicated significant male-biased philopatry. Besides, low to high genetic differentiation was observed between the Rasa and Cardonosa islands (ΦST = 0–0.22) (both in the Midriff Islands Region), but higher genetic differentiation against Isabel Island (ΦST > 0.25) (in the Mexican Province region). Consistently, genetic structure among regions was observed using different approaches (AMOVA: ΦCT = 0.49; SAMOVA: FCT = 0.49; and BAPS: K = 2). Similarly, a pattern of isolation by distance (rM= 0.82, p = 0.03), agrees with lower estimates of scaled migration rates between regions than among islands of the same region. Overall, it is suggested that the genetic structure found in Heermann’s Gull has been promoted by physical and behavioral barriers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108
JournalDiversity
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Instituto Polit?cnico Nacional (IPN), projects SIP-20171835, SIP-20181044, and SIP-20195761 granted to E.A.R., and Universidad de Sonora grant 19-194 to J.G.S.-O. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog?a (CONACyT) supported the M.D.M.-M. doctoral degree (grant: 630058/577450), who also received support from BEIFI (projects 20200591, and 20210142) and COFAA-IPN (grant DEAE/LA0280/2018). Field work was funded by grants to E.V. between 1985 to 2018 by several donors, must importantly by the join fund from Fondo Mexicano para la Conservaci?n de la Naturaleza/Lindblab Expeditions/National Geographic/Packard Foundation.

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), projects SIP-20171835, SIP-20181044, and SIP-20195761 granted to E.A.R., and Universidad de Sonora grant 19-194 to J.G.S.-O. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) supported the M.D.M.-M. doctoral degree (grant: 630058/577450), who also received support from BEIFI (projects 20200591, and 20210142) and COFAA-IPN (grant DEAE/LA0280/2018). Field work was funded by grants to E.V. between 1985 to 2018 by several donors, must importantly by the join fund from Fondo Mexicano para la Conservación de la Naturaleza/Lindblab Expeditions/National Geographic/Packard Foundation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Dispersal
  • Gene flow
  • Genetic differentiation
  • Larus heermanni
  • Seabirds

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