The clinical laboratory evolution in coccidioidomycosis detection: Future perspectives

José María Gastélum-Cano, Mitzuko Dautt-Castro, Alfonso García-Galaz, Katya Felix-Murray, Antonio Rascón-Careaga, Manuel A. Cano-Rangel, María A. Islas-Osuna*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic disease caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. It is a prevalent disease in arid regions with high temperatures and low precipitations in America. Coccidioidomycosis is a highly endemic disease of US-Mexico border states but commonly underdiagnosed. The diagnosis of coccidiomycosis is not easy due to the lack of specific symptoms; it is usually an integral approach, including clinical laboratory tests as an essential part of the diagnosis. Nevertheless, despite various laboratory tests available, affordability can be a limitation, mainly in developing countries. This review's objectives are 1) to learn the different laboratory approaches that arose and their application for clinical diagnosis; 2) to discuss their advantages and weaknesses, and finally, 3) propose what is on the horizon for future advances in clinical laboratory diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. It has been a long way in laboratory tests evolution to detect coccidioidomycosis from tissue microscopy to Real-Time PCR. However, there is a delay in technology adoption for Coccidioides spp. detection in the clinical laboratory. The molecular Point of Care Testing (POCT) technology has reached us in our trench while research in PCR variants stills on-going. None of the currently existing scientific literature in coccidioidomycosis research has mentioned it. However, this trend in infectious and non-infectious disease diagnosis will continue in that way in order to offer better options for an easy and fast diagnosis. Undoubtedly, the implementation of molecular POCT for Coccidioides spp. would save resources in health care attention and improve access to diagnostic tools.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101159
JournalJournal of Medical Mycology
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank CONACYT for scholarship to J.M.G-C for graduate studies.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 SFMM

Keywords

  • Coccidioides
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Laboratory tests
  • Molecular diagnosis
  • Point-of-care testing

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