Currently, silver nanoparticles have boomed in food and medicine due to their potential applications, such as antibacterial and anticancer activity. These nanoparticles have been synthesized by several techniques; however, green synthesis has taken on greater importance due to the non-generation of toxic residues. Green synthesis has been constructed from plant parts; however, the new trend comprises the use of agri-food waste extracts, known as sustainable green synthesis. The use of agri-food waste reduces environmental pollution and confers on its added value. The main waste generated is found in agricultural crops and industry from fruits and vegetables, cereal, bagasse from the food industry, and alcoholic beverages, oil cake of the oil industry, among others. The main biomolecules in agri-food waste extracts include phenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenes, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and proteins, whose function is to reduce the agents of the silver ion. Therefore, the objective of this review was to promote the use of agri-food waste for the sustainable green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application as antibacterial and anticancer agents.