Unjustified aggression is a problem that exists in schools and represents an obstacle for achieving the goals pursued by education. The goal of this article is to explain how shame, empathy, coping style and school safety discriminate between defensive and reinforcing observers in the face of a hypothetical situation of school bullying. 505 students from public, technical and federal secondary schools of the State of Sonora with ages ranging from 12 to 17 years participated in this study. Of this sample 131 were considered defenders and 374 reinforcers. The results show that the recognition of shame, affective empathy, confrontative coping and school safety explain up to 71.4% the differences between the defensive observers and the reinforcers. It is concluded that the variables considered as predictors can differentiate between the types of observers and represent a valuable contribution in the analysis of bullying as a group process.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The article is derived from a project funded by the National Council of Science and Technology entitled “Design and evaluation of a management program for school coexistence in public high schools in the State of Sonora”, with registration number 189638, so all possible ethical care was taken. Because they are adolescents, written informed consent was given to the parents or guardians, in addition to the consent signed by the adolescents. In the consent they informed the adolescents and their parents that there would be no financial benefits related to their participation. The data collected would be protected in the anonymity and secrecy of the information, so when answering it was clear what were the purposes of the study, the security, confidentiality of the information and the voluntary nature of their participation.
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Mailing address: 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, Centro, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, Mexico. Email: jesus.tanori@itson. edu.mx. This research article is part of the project “Diseño y evaluación de un programa de gestión de la convivencia escolar en escuelas secundarias públicas del Estado de Sonora” (“Design and evaluation of a management program for school coexistence in public secondary schools in the State of Sonora”), funded by the Under-Secretariat for Basic Education SEB / Conacyt. Project No. 189638.
© The Author(s), 2018.