Encapsulation of Sardine Oil by Electrospraying with Gliadins and Pecan Nutshell Extracts for its Stabilization
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This study is the first to report the optimization of diameter of encapsulated sardine oil (SO) particles with gliadins and pecan nutshell extract as wall material during electrospraying. Firstly, the physicochemical stabilization of the encapsulated SO with or without nutshell extract was investigated and compared with the nonencapsulated SO. The average diameter of the SO particles with or without nutshell extracts was around 1473 nm and 564–999 nm, respectively. The two types of encapsulation showed higher encapsulation efficiency (94 and 98%) and loading capacity (25 and 26%). Results from the Rancimat test demonstrated that nutshell extracts at 0.030 and 0.050% w/w improved the oxidative stability of the nonencapsulated SO and improved the stability of the encapsulated SO even more (up to 48 h). FTIR results showed a modification in the secondary structure of the gliadins at the amide I band, indicating the interaction between SO and gliadin and explaining the increase in the oxidative stability of encapsulated SO. In summary, these results indicate that gliadins and pecan nutshell extract could be used as new wall materials for encapsulation and stabilization of SO. Also, pecan nutshell extract could be used as a nutraceutical ingredient or to develop of functional foods by the food industry.