Fertilization systems in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in soils of arid-desertic areas

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Background. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important source of human and animal food, due to its high nutritional value and, therefore, it is considered the second legume in cultivated area worldwide. Currently, the population in the world is on the rise and with it the demand for food, which leads to increasing the exploitation of agricultural fields, with a respective increase in the use of fertilizers, mainly nitrogen fertilization (urea), which It is the one that largely guarantees the highest yields and quality of the grains. Nitrogen from urea is lost through volatilization and leaching processes by more than 50% before being assimilated by the plants and, on the other hand, the risks that occur due to the losses of pollutants that are released into the environment. Objective. The objective of this research was to carry out a systematic review of the general aspects of chickpea cultivation, with special emphasis on aspects of nitrogen fertilization, mainly in those studies carried out on the development of prolonged release systems (FLP) and / or controlled. of urea, which could be used in chickpea and other crops, as a fertilization alternative to avoid nitrogen losses and, consequently, contamination to the environment. Methodology. The study was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyzes), a systematic literature study was carried out in the global databases Science Direct, JSTOR, Springer Link, Dialnet, Google Scholar, Google Scholar, using the Boolean operator as search terms: “systems, evaluation, methodologies, released fertilization, prolonged fertilization, agricultural sustainability”. Zotero (www.zotero.org), a free access manager for bibliographic references, was used. The University of Sonora database was reviewed. Results. Various databases with information related to chickpea cultivation, its importance, distribution and world production under arid environments and its interaction with symbiotic nitrogen fixation were detected; fertilization alternatives to avoid N losses in arid zones, specifically in those with prolonged release. Implications. FLP technology in agriculture includes the prolonged delivery of nutrients (fertilizers) to the plant, increasing its efficiency and reducing the negative effects associated with overdose. This technology has the function of releasing the nutrients to the plants at a speed close to the nutrient demand of the plants, for a prolonged period. Conclusions. The studies with FLP open a new way to reduce irrational applications of nitrogen chemical fertilizers, mainly in arid zones where there are the greatest problems due to leaching, due to the characteristics of the soils. Subject of great interest, in which it continues to be deepened, with the aim of obtaining a harmonized method to determine the translocation of nutrients from the FLP to the soil solution and, taking into account the influence of existing factors.
Título traducido de la contribuciónFertilization systems in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in soils of arid-desertic areas
Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo53
PublicaciónTropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems
EstadoPublicada - 1 may. 2021

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