Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-Tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.
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