The genus Rickettsia encompasses 35 valid species of intracellular, coccobacilli bacteria that can infect several eukaryotic taxa, causing multiple emerging and re-emerging diseases worldwide. This work aimed to gather and summarise the current knowledge about the genus Rickettsia in Mexico, updating the taxonomy of the bacteria and their hosts by including all the records available until 2020, to elucidate host-parasite relationships and determine the geographical distribution of each Rickettsia species present in the country. Until now, 14 species of Rickettsia belonging to four groups have been recorded in Mexico. These species have been associated with 26 arthropod species (14 hard ticks, three soft ticks, two sucking lice, and seven fleas) and 17 mammal species distributed over 30 states in Mexico. This work highlights the high biological inventory of rickettsias for Mexico and reinforces the need to approach the study of this group from a One Health perspective.
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